Goddess of natural order. . .

Ma’at was the goddess and personification of truth and justice. Pharaohs were often shown holding out a statue of Ma‘at as an offering to the gods. Judges in the ancient land were considered representatives of Ma’at’s divine order. The ancients believed that on Judgment Day in the Hall of Truth, the deceased’s heart would be weighed on the scales of justice, balanced by the feather of Ma’at.


The ancients appealed to Ma’at for justice, truth, divine order and righteousness.

Ma’at was shown as a woman with a single feather balanced on her head. That single feather was by itself the symbol of truth.


The spear of Horus . . . Mafdet was believed to represent the rule of law and final judgment. In fact, this goddess exacted justice and fought off snakes. Her symbol was the executioner’s staff, or she was represented as a sharp

clawed feline predator. Mafdet appeared in some illustrations of the Hall of Judgment.


Originally a local god, Mentu Ra was associated with the sun.

Likewise, this deity was praised in his aspect of the strong arm of pharaoh. In fact, Mentu became part of the name of several pharaohs.

Mentu Ra was depicted as a man with the head of a hawk, the sun disk with uraeus and the plumes of Amun upon his head.


The highest peak in the Valley of the Kings is naturally pyramid shaped. Perhaps ancient rulers, who had discovered that highly visible and dramatic pyramids were not secure repositories for royal remains, chose the desolate landscape for hidden burials. The face of the mountain would have been a nod to the traditions of the Golden Age of Pyramids.

She who loves the silence . . .

Mertseger was the goddess of the Valley of the Kings, near ancient Thebes. She was loved as a patron goddess of the necropolis workers. Mertseger appeared as a snake goddess with the head of a woman. The goddess is also depicted as the highest peak in the Valley of the Kings, a naturally formed pyramid.


Many cultures and religions

have featured angels in their belief systems; the Assyrians,

the Mesopotamians, the Hindus, Buddhists, Zoroastrians, Taoists, even the Vikings had their Valkyries who took up the souls of brave warriors who fell on the battlefield and brought them to

the halls of Valhalla. Devotees

of Yoruba, a pantheistic African religion closely related to the cult of Voodoo speak of Orisha, spiritual beings similar in conception to Christian and Judaic angels and Shamanic religions rely on bird

like spirits to search for the lost souls of ill or dying people.

There are many references to angels in the Bible and the Koran. usually in the form of heavenly messengers. intervening in the course of history at critical times. Amongst the most famous of all angels is Gabriel. whose influence on the biblical narrative is crucial. Not only does he appear to both Joseph and Mary, to reassure and to strengthen their resolve, but he undoubtedly saves the life of the unborn baby Jesus with his advice

to liee to Bethlehem to escape the murderous Herod.

cher significant angelic interventions are the occasion when Paul

is freed from captivity, his ch loosed by a mysterious stran and


God ofwar. ..

Montu was once a powerful god of royal military endeavors. Ancient kings believed that this god would make them Victorious in battle.

Montu was represented as a falcon headed man who wore a sun disk with two plumes on his head. Montu’s sacred animal was Buchis, a white bull

with a black face, and he was sometimes portrayed as a man with a bull’s head surmounted with a sun disk and plumes.


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